Creation of high-tech equipment, a significant acceleration of progress made by science and technology and the implementation of resource-saving technologies require the development of new materials in the parts of machines working with slip friction and have a low coefficient of friction. The monograph presents the results of theoretical and experimental studies of polymer composite materials (PCM) on the basis of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). Polytetrafluoroethylene has been studied with fillers of different chemical nature in order to form a perfect structure and the required level of operational properties of fluoroplastic composites. An important aspect here is the objective assessment and analysis of the influence of fillers on the structure and physical and mechanical properties of PCM. The development of composite models and prediction of operating characteristics of antifriction materials using PTFE on their basis was studied. Promising in this respect are polymer composite materials (PCM) based on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) due to its unique operational properties – the lowest coefficient of friction among polymers, high chemical inertia, thermal and cold resistance. However, low wear and thermal conductivity, high coefficient of thermal expansion and creep limit the possibilities of its application in its pure form. The technical progress leads to the complication of the use of PCM, in which they no longer meet the necessary requirements. This causes the need for new macromolecular substances or the modification of already existing polymers. First, it requires large material costs (for the synthesis of new polymers and the creation of new technological productions). The second is more economical and promising. Technically, it can be implemented by modifying polymers. In the case of PTFE it is advisable to modify the polymer by mechanical activation, which is related to the low energy and metal capacity of the equipment, the simplicity and safety of the process, as well as the possibility of introducing the corresponding functional fillers. The influence of modes of mechanoactivation processes in the technology of preparation of ingredients on the structure and properties of composites is insufficient. The problem of increasing the efficiency of composite sealing elements of friction units and increasing the life of their operation remains unresolved. Therefore, the study of the specific features of the activation and modification of the matrix and fillers, the development of the principles of obtaining tribo-technical composites based on PTFE is an actual task of the technology of polymer and composite materials, which is an important scientific and technical problem. The information provided may also be useful to engineers and technical staff in technical practice organizations that are producers of ensuring series production and production of spare parts in the automotive and other demanding industries. Monograph is also based on its own experience and discussions with various companies and organizations, such as PoltavaGasVydobuvannya Gas Production Division (GPD) (Poltava, Ukraine), “Sumy NPO” PJSC (Sumy, Ukraine), Concern «NICMAS» (Sumy, Ukraine) and so on. The monograph provides a comprehensive presentation of information from data collection to assess them and issuitable and useful also for university teachers, students of technical faculties who are interested in new approaches and trends in this area. The monograph was supported by grant KEGA.